Hallo, mein Name ist Eva Winkler und ich bin bei der Greenpeacegruppe Chiemgau in Traunstein. Erneuerbare Energien wie Windräder werden ja hoffentlich weiter ausgebaut. Dennoch habe ich mir die Frage gestellt ob es Tiergerecht ist Windräder im Meer zu platzieren da Wale, wie auch durch Schiffe, dadurch irritiert werden und nur schwer kommunizieren können. Ich wende mich daher an euch, da wir in unsere Gruppe keine Antwort darauf gefunden haben.
zur Zeit arbeite ich am letzten Kapitel eines Buches zum Thema "Meeresschutz". Ich hoffe, es bald beenden zu können und, daß es bis zum Herbst zu einem vertretbaren Preis im Handel ist.
Als Leseprobe und zum Nachdenken möchte ich Euch die einleitenden Absätze auf diesem Weg zuschicken. (Ich hoffe, daß Ihr kein Problem damit habt, daß es in Englisch geschrieben ist. ):
"Environmental protection has become a public concern since more than 150 years (Marsh 1864, reprinted 2017, Grzimek 1954, engl.1956, Carson 1962, Meadows et al. 1972). It coincides with enormous growth of the world's population and industrialization.
This concern nowadays includes oceans and regional seas:
„The situation certainly doesn't look very good: The deep, blue sea is becoming messy, and the troubled waters are not that blue any-more. Rusting drums containing deadly chemicals rest on the bottom of the North Sea. A smelly brown substance that the Japanese call hedoro, a combination of the words for "vomit" and "muck," floats on once calm waters. Coral reefs are poisoned by fishers in Southeast Asia. Oil spills threaten coasts from the Persian Gulf to Alaska and oil globs are found even on the once pristine ice shelf of Antarctica. Sick, dying dolphins and seals are washed up on beaches. Salt marshes are being turned into garbage dumps and mangrove forests into ponds for shrimp mariculture.
The list is long and alarming. It is, however, only a small sample of anthropogenic impacts, or the effects of human activities, on the marine environment.” (Castro & Huber, 2002, p. 407)
Mankind has developed a variety of utilizations of oceans and regional seas:
• fisheries and aquaculture
• other commercial uses of living resources, e.g. jewellery from corals, pearls,
• pharmacological use of bio-molecules from marine organisms, e.g. sponges
• recreation and tourism
• offshore oil and gas drilling
• ocean mining, e.g. manganese nodules
• fresh water and table salt production
• liquid and solid waste dump
• offshore wind energy and tidal energy production
Unfortunately some of these utilizations negatively affect others. Some utilizations even affect themselves negatively, e.g. by over-exploitation of resources. Some utilizations lack sustainability.
However, the principle of sustainability must also be applied as a guiding concept in dealing with marine ecosystems [IUCN 1980]. The principle of sustainability is developed here with the strategic objectives:
1 ) Conservation of the ecosystems
2 ) Safeguarding genetic diversity
3 ) Preservation of the use of resources
This principle was further developed into the principle of sustainable development by the World Commission on Environment and Development - established by the United Nations in 1983 - under the leadership of G. H. Brundtland [World Commission on Environment and Development 1987]. Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Central aspects of this are:
1) the environment - not only as the biophysical, natural environment, but also the socio-political, human components that make up the entire world environment for which a 'world ecology' exists.
2 ) the development - not only of economic activities, but also of a progress of quality and justice growth.
3 ) society - as an interdependent world community, dependent on a single biosphere, where global economic growth cannot progress with unequal distribution of wealth.
4 ) Links - between poverty, injustice and environmental degradation.
The principle of sustainability can be transferred to water protection. Accordingly, it is important to preserve waters as ecosystems, preserve their genetic diversity and ensure their usability as a natural resource. To this end, quality objectives can be formulated, as is the case in the USA and Germany, for example. In the USA, water quality standards (WQS) were developed to implement the 'Clean Water Act' (CWA) in order to protect surface waters, their biotic communities and human health [Foran et al. 1991]. In Germany, quality objectives have been developed in relation to various objects of protection [Markard 1992]. Among the objects of protection are the aquatic biocoenoses themselves (safeguarding the water body ecosystems and their genetic diversity), suspended matter and sediments as partial components of water body ecosystems of special ecological importance, and the oceans in their function as receiving waters of inland waters. In addition, the use of water bodies by humans as objects of protection is of particular importance. Goldberg  mentions fishing and aquaculture, waste and sewage disposal, recreation and transport as uses. Markard  defines fishing as well as leisure and recreation as uses to be protected. In addition, drinking water supply and irrigation of agricultural land are similarily important.
Among the different forms of use there are some conflicts of uses. For example, waste and wastewater disposal as well as transport may interfere with fishing and aquaculture as well as recreation. On the other hand, conflicts of use between fisheries and aquaculture on the one hand and leisure and recreation on the other are more conceivable.
Particular importance is attached to the protection of the oceans, which are of outstanding importance for the entire ecosystem of the Earth (biosphere). Thus the oceans make a considerable contribution to the stability of the global gas and material balance [Woodwell 1978, Woodwell et al. 1978], especially the water balance [la Rivière 1989]. Among the oceans themselves, the need for protection of the shelf and regional seas must be emphasized once again, on the one hand because of their special biocoenoses with partly endemic species, but also because of their particularly intensive use in the fields of fisheries and aquaculture, waste and sewage disposal, recreation and transport. For this reason, national and international institutions - including the United Nations - are making special efforts to protect these marine areas from harmful anthropogenic influences [UNEP 1982]. The situation in these marine areas is further aggravated by the fact that the water body is often relatively small and the exchange of water with other marine areas is often low, e.g. in the Mediterranean, Black Sea or Baltic Sea. Among the 'pollutants' are [UNEP 1983, Kennish 1997 ]:
1 ) Metals, especially iron, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, tin and antimony, which are introduced into the oceans via the rivers and atmosphere
2 ) Dissolved and particulate inorganic materials
3 ) Dissolved and particulate organic materials
4 ) Plastic, glass and other non-decomposable waste
5 ) Radionuclides
6 ) Micro-organisms
7 ) Thermal load by cooling waters
8 ) Halogenated hydrocarbons, including pesticides (e.g. DDT, lindane) and other industrial products (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls)
9 ) Hydrocarbons from fossil fuels
Possible damaging effects can be of a variety of types [UNEP 1983]:
1) Damage to the fisheries and aquaculture industry through damage to mollusc and crustacean populations and fish species that spend part of their life cycle in coastal areas. Possible damage here is acute lethality, long-term damage with reduced vitality and fertility, disturbed population structure and reduced population sizes, and accumulation of pollutants.
2 ) Damage to the ecosystem, for example when important links in the food web are disrupted. This can also be of economic importance if the food webs also affect economically important species such as salmon or oysters. In addition to direct damage to biotic ecosystem components, there may also be indirect damage by stimulating excessive growth of phytoplankton through nutrient input ('plankton blooms'). Here, certain forms of plankton can cause an increased level of toxins in the system, while anoxic living conditions can be induced by secondary microbial processes.
3 ) Impaired human health ('public health') due to enriched pollutants and micro-organisms in food from the sea.
4 ) Reduced recreational value of coastal areas, damage to the tourism industry